Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
ABSTRACT: Leadership development is such an imperative topic that it cannot be overstated in any management discussion for any industry or field. According to a recent survey conducted by professional associations, nearly 50% of senior American library leaders, including those at the director level, will retire by 2010. Findings of such surveys raise strategically important issues – Is the library profession ready to pass the torch to next generation of leaders? How are the next generations of leaders to be assessed, selected, and developed? What are the core leadership attributes or the ideal profile of future library leaders? How can future library leaders be cultivated with global perspectives?
U.S. libraries have pioneered in library leadership development. A number of leadership development programs across all segments of the library profession have been established. Experience from those programs with highly influential outcomes may be applied to libraries elsewhere in the world. The increasing globalization in business practice has a great impact on leadership development in all industries. Cultural Intelligence or Cultural Quotient (CQ) has been identified as one of the most important leadership attributes in addition to Emotional Intelligence or Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Analytical Intelligence or Analytical Quotient (IQ). The increasing dependency of global resource sharing in library and information services has created demands for libraries and fostered the new frontier of global collaboration. A new concept of Global Library is emerging. Future library leaders with global perspectives will be highly sought after.
|“I feel about globalization a lot like I feel about the dawn… I didn't start globalization, I can't stop it…”|
|– Thomas Friedman from “The World is Flat”
|“The Jack Welch of the future cannot be me. I spent my entire career in the United States. The next head of General Electric will be somebody who spent time in Bombay, in Hong Kong, in Buenos Aires. We have to send our best and brightest overseas and make sure they have the training that will allow them to be the global leaders who will make GE flourish in the future.”|
|– Jack Welch, former CEO, GE|
The world is flattening. Globalization has an impact on every industry, and library and information services are no exception. The emerging global library operational environment creates demand for new leaders possessing highly cross-cultural management skills. Accordingly, library leadership development needs to add new dimensions to the global library leadership development. The practice of current library leadership development has focused on local and special segment needs with less updated curriculum.
Cultural Intelligence or Cultural Quotient (CQ) has been identified as one of the most important leadership attributes in addition to Emotional Intelligence or Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Analytical Intelligence or Analytical Quotient (IQ). However, in the literature of library leadership development, there are no discussions nor applications of CQ yet. In this paper, the authors use the Chinese culture as an example to explore the value of CQ in the library leadership development.
In The World is Flat, Friedman (2006) describes the globalization as the interweaving of markets, technology, information systems and telecommunications systems in a way that is shrinking and flattening the world. Globalization enables us to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and vise versa.
Rikowski (2005) expounds four contradictory dimensions in which globalization manifests. The first dimension is the cultural dimension. In globalization, the diversity of various cultures in the world as well as the challenge of homogenizing different cultures must be acknowledged. The second dimension addresses the vanishing of national power in the global economy, with the emergence of so many transnational organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. These transnational organizations set up the standards of the field in the world and greatly influence the national organizations. The third dimension is the capital’s expansion, which illustrates the individual lives in the global market. The last but the most important dimension is the global labor value. With globalization, employers can hire the best value labor across the world to maximize profit. These four contradictory dimensions demonstrate that globalization brings opportunities as well as challenges to us.
2. What is the global library?
Not long ago, “the end of stand-along library” was an evil omen. Now it seems that “the end of local library” might come soon, as the beginning of the “global library” is on the horizon.
Globalization, the most progressive global movement since the Industry Revolution, has brought an enormous impact to every single continent and every single industry. As libraries are increasingly obtaining resources from and providing services to users all across the world, a new model of library services and operations emerges, which is referred to as the Global Library (GL) in this paper.
The Global Library can be defined with the following key characteristics: 1) is globally accessible in either virtual or physical library environment; 2) provides global users with 24x7 services; 3) hosts global-focused library collections and resources; 4) employs global talents; 5) operates globally, even though the headquarters are in a home country; 6) is actively engaged in library-related activities for global communities.
The benefits of the Global Library:
The challenges of the Global Library:
Some existing examples of the global library or global library-like services:
Leadership is a popular topic in many fields, such as management studies and behavior studies. Such discussions can be found not only in western literature, but also in Chinese traditional literature which was written over a thousand years ago.
Different definitions of leadership emphasize on various aspects of leadership. Maxwell (1999) defined leadership in that “Leadership is influence – nothing more, nothing less” (p. 17). As a leader, influence is the most important thing. A manager needs a position to influence others, but a leader does not need such a position. “Leadership is also a performing art – a collection of practices and behaviors – not a position … thus we define leadership as the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations” (Kouzes & Posner, 2002, p.30).
Just as Lao Tse (老子) mentioned, a leader is the catalyst. “Leadership is communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves.” (Covey, 2004, p.122). Leaders empower the followers to reach their potential, which may be even beyond the followers’ abilities that they realize. “Leadership is creating an environment in which people want to be part of the organization and not just work for the organization. Leadership creates an environment that makes people want to, rather than have to do …” (Covey, 2004, p. 217). In an organization, a true leader can create an exciting and encouraging culture which attracts followers to devote themselves to the organization and to make the contributions with passion. The followers work for the organization not only for making a living, but for the hearty love for the job. Mason and Wetherbee (2004) summarized the key characteristics of leadership as compared to management (Table 1).
|A leader does the right things.||A good manager does things right.|
|Leadership is about effectiveness.||Management is largely about efficiency.|
|Leading is about what and why.||Management is about how to do things.|
|Leadership is about trust and about people.||Management is about systems, controls, procedures, policies, and structure.|
|Leadership is about innovating and initiating.||Management is about copying, about managing the status quo.|
|Leadership looks at the horizon, not just the bottom line.||Management is about the bottom line.|
2. Leadership theories
There are eight recognized universal leadership theories in the field, including great man theory, trait theory, behavioral theories, participative leadership, situational leadership, contingency theories, transactional leadership, and transformational leadership, as shown in Table 2.
|Great Man Theory||--Leaders are born and not made.
--Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.
|Trait Theory||--People are born with inherited traits.
--Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
--People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.
|Behavioral Theory||--Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
--Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.
|Participative Leadership||--Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.
--People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.
--People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
--When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increase their commitment to the decision.
--Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone.
|Situational Leadership||--The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.|
|Contingency Theory||--The leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors.|
|Transactional Leadership||--People are motivated by reward and punishment.
--Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.
--When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.
--The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
|Transformational Leadership||--People will follow a person who inspires them.
--A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
--The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Traditionally, people measure rational and logic-based verbal and quantitative intelligence by Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests. Recently, leadership studies have placed Emotional Intelligence (EQ) as a prominent factor to determine success, which can be measured by EQ tests. Nowadays, in addition to IQ and EQ, Cultural Intelligence (CQ) which can be measured by CQ tests is now coming into existence. Studies have revealed that people’s facial expression to show the emotions, such as happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust, are based on their cultural background (Alon & Higgins, 2005). For example, Americans and Japanese may use quite different facial expression to express the same feeling.
Earley and Ang (2003) defined Cultural Intelligence as “person’s capability for successful adaptation to new cultural settings; that is, for unfamiliar settings attributable to cultural context” (p. 9). They described CQ in two types and three major categories.
Two types of CQ are:
Three categories are:
2 Cross-cultural management with Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
The cross-cultural management refers to the management practice in organizations with heterogeneous cultural settings where cultural factors and sensitivities are being taken into primary consideration in the organizational decision-making processes and framework.
In the growth of globalization in the business world, the increasingly dynamic change in conducting business globally will require leaders to have the global aspect of functional business skill sets. The more important challenge is that as human resources and talents become commodity, it will require leaders to possess inter-cultural skills, including CQ, to perform an effective cross-cultural management. The higher the CQ the leader possesses, the more capable the leader is in the cross-cultural management.
3. Cross-cultural management in library and information setting
Although cross-cultural management concept and applications have grown popular in international or multi-national corporate business, they are relatively new in library management. As libraries are going through the transition towards the global library, the cross-cultural management challenge is inevitably coming to library management.
One familiar application of cross-cultural management in library settings is managing diversity. Most definitions of diversity are mainly based on the following ideas: 1) people’s diversity can add value to the organization if managed effectively; 2) diversity includes a lot of ways in which people differ from each other such as education, sexual orientation as well as gender, ethnicity, disability, etc.; 3) diversity is a primary concern in organizational culture and working environment. Libraries have been a front runner in managing and promoting diversity.
American Library Association (ALA) has declared that diversity is one of the five key action areas to fulfill its mission to provide the best services to patrons. ALA promotes equity in information access and library services for all library users. It also encourages libraries to recruit underrepresented groups and foster a diverse working environment in all libraries. ALA sets its diversity vision as follow:
|“The American Library Association recognizes that in addition to race, creed, color, religion, gender, disability and national origin, there are multitude of differences (language origin, regional and geographic background, economic class, education, learning and communication styles, sexual orientation and personal lifestyle) that individuals bring to the workplace. It is this diversity that contributes a deeper level of understanding and competence to our daily work. The American Library Association envisions a richly, diverse workforce providing a high level of service to membership in an environment where respect, appreciation, equity and inclusion are core values.”|
|—ALA (See: http://www.ala.org/ala/diversity/diversity.htm)|
In addition to the above example of managing library workforce, examples are also found in the area of library patron management. Norberg (2005) summarized some typical library-specific CQ issues in supporting American and international students.
4. Cross-cultural management with an analysis, using Chinese culture as an example
Rooted from its long history and rich civilization, Chinese culture carries many distinctive characteristics and has deep impact on Chinese management philosophy. For example, individualism is considered as one of the main cultural characters in Western societies; in contrast, collectivism is regarded as a typical cultural character in East Asia.
In cross-cultural management, one needs to be aware of the differences among various cultures. The challenge of cross-cultural management lies on the integration, understanding, and even tolerance of cultural differences. Effective cross-cultural management strives to maximize adaptation and productivity among different cultures, regardless of a manager’s personal preference.
Individualism and collectivism are typical in the Western and Chinese cultures respectively. Table 3 summaries some management behavioral examples, derived from individualism vs. collectivism in Western and Chinese society.
5 Library leadership development programs (LDPs) in U.S. and China
With globalization, organizations, large or small, for-profit or not-for-profit, have undergone tremendous changes. Libraries are not exempted from such changes. Leadership is regarded as the most critical component of an effective organization that adapts to changes quickly.
Although leadership development programs have been a popular management training topic in the business world, the leadership concept and theories did not appear in the library literature until 1980s (Mason & Wetherbee, 2004). Leadership was not even a subject heading or index term in the library literature. Don Riggs, in conducting his research for a book on library leadership, found only very few entries for librarianship and leaders in Library Literature for the years 1975–1981 (Riggs, 1998). Instead, some other subject headings were used in the place of leadership, such as “administration”, “librarianship”, “organizational behavior”, “personnel” and specific type of subject headings such as TQM (Total Quality Management).
In contrast, leadership exists as a subject heading in the major indexes for other professions, such as finance, accounting and nursing. This fact indicates that the lack of “leadership” as a subject heading is not only an access issue, but also a problem, which indicates that leadership as a concept in the profession of librarianship may have not been acknowledged as a legitimate discussion topic or entity, and have not been clearly defined and differentiated from other library management topics (Karp & Murdock, 1998).
Library leadership programs are one important way to address the library leadership and arouse librarians’ awareness of the need for leadership training. Mason and Wetherbee (2004) conducted a quite comprehensive review of thirty-one library leadership programs in the U.S. Six of them are mainly oriented towards academic librarians, as shown in Table 4.
|Name of Program||Target Audience||Selective Admission||Primary Emphasis||Number of Participants||Moderators||First Offered (Number of days)||Continues (Y/N)|
|ACRL/Harvard Leadership Institute||Academic library directors and associate directors||Yes||Leadership, organizational strategy, transformational leadership, planning||14||Harvard faculty, M. Sullivan, and others||1990 (5days)||Yes|
|Association of Research Libraries and Career Development||Early and mid-career minority librarians in academic libraries||Yes||Encourage diversity in top leadership of academic libraries||20||Varies||1997 (5 days + off-site)||Yes|
|EDUCAUSE Leadership Institute||Information technology managers in higher education||Yes||Develop management skills focusing on motivation and deployment of staff||Unknown||Various||1998 (4-5 days)||Yes|
|Frye Leadership Institute||Higher education faculty, librarians, information technology professionals||Yes||Leadership skills for higher education leaders||40||Various||1999 (14+ days)||Yes|
|Stanford-California Institute||Mostly California librarians—the next generation of library leaders—most mid-career||Yes||Focus on topics including technology, library collections, organizational effectiveness, facilities planning, technology impacts||125-145||Various with Stanford faculty||2001 (unknown)||No|
|UCLA Senior Fellows Program||ARL directors or associate directors||Yes||Enhance leadership in North American libraries, particularly research libraries||15||Various||1982 (unknown)||Yes|
Table 5 lists the information of three Chinese library leadership programs which are also targeted at academic librarians in China.
|Name of Program||Target Audience||Selective Admission||Primary Emphasis||Number of Participants||Sponsors||Number of Days||Continues (Y/N)|
|National University Library Director Workshop||University Library directors or associate directors||Unknown||Application of new technology in academic libraries, library management||50-60||Steering Committee for Academic Libraries of China||Unknown||Yes|
|Hong Kong Asian Library Leadership Program||Academic librarians from Hong Kong, mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and other countries in the region||Yes||1. To develop and enhance management and leadership qualities in academic and research librarians in the East Asia region, and
2. To enhance collaboration and foster relations among academic and research libraries in the region.
|40||University of Hong Kong Libraries, University of Macau International Library and Hong Kong Joint University Librarians Advisory Committee||4 days||Yes|
|Chinese University Librarians Summer Workshop||Chinese librarians||Chinese librarians||Leadership development, information share and collaboration, information technology and digital library||Unknown||UIUC (US) and Chinese Academy of Library Science (中国图书馆学会高校分会)||4 weeks||Yes|
American libraries have pioneered in the field of library leadership development (LDP). Lessons learned from American libraries’ practices on LDP might be applied to libraries elsewhere.
American’s LDPs have been highly praised of their curriculum design, marketing/promotion, cross-segment coverage and so on. However, some major lessons learned in American’s LDPs can be valuable for others when they design their own LDPs.
Very little information can be found from deep web research on Chinese library LDPs. Those programs identified here are still in the early development or experimental stage.
Cooperation and collaboration with Western libraries seem to be the main theme for Chinese library LDPs. Hong Kong libraries’ LDP followed closely of the US Association of Research Libraries’ practice, and they even brought in American facilitators for instruction. (See: http://lib.hku.hk/leadership/) Another interesting program is the one which is jointly organized by Chinese Academy of Library Science and University of Illinois (UIUC) Graduate School of Library and Information Science. (Lynn, 2006, http://www.news.uiuc.edu/news/06/0613librarians.html). Those two are good examples of special curriculum and program that were tailored to the needs of Chinese librarians. These are also good examples of international collaboration on library leadership training and development.
With accelerated globalization and the needs of developing future library leaders with global literacy, a special component of cross-cultural training needs to be added into LDP’s curriculum and program design. The international collaboration on LDP may be a feasible and effective way to address this issue.
1. The emerging demand of developing future library leaders
Librarianship as a profession has entered an area where its workforce is aging and its leadership is becoming more “graying”. Fifty-eight percent of librarians in the U.S. are projected to reach the retirement age of 65 between 2005 and 2019 and forty per cent of library directors plan to retire in less than nine years (Source: Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO, “Fact Sheet 2005”: http://www.dpeaflcio.org/programs/factsheets/archived/fs_2005_library_workers.htm). Librarians, as a group, are much older than those in comparable professions. Moreover, they are also aging much faster. Currently, only 12 percent of librarians are in the age range of 25-34, while the percentage in other professions is only about one fourth (Lenzini, 2002).
There is also an international trend of “graying”. In Australia, over 52% of librarians are currently more than 45 years old. If they will retire at the age of 60, then about half of the population of Australian librarians are expected to retire within the next 10 to 15 years. (Hutley & Solomons, 2004).
In the next 15-20 years, libraries will experience a loss of a large number of professional workers, including leaders. Library leadership development becomes very important to ensure a new cohort of leaders, especially leaders with global vision ready to take over. Leadership development programs that focus on recruiting diverse backgrounds and ethnicities will be in high demand. Librarians, as a profession, are forced to choose a strategically important decision on succession management.
2. Traits of future library leaders
In the emerging global library environment, library leaders must demonstrate not only all those conventional leadership qualities, but also be injected with new dimensions of leadership qualities that focus on cross-cultural management.
Successful library leaders will need to demonstrate “a blend of bold leadership, informed risk taking, widespread consultation, and consensus building. They will need keen analytical powers, abundant common sense, vibrant creativity, reasoned judgment, and a passionate commitment to the mission and goals of higher education.” (Metz, 2001, p.3)
Recent researches in library leadership development summarized some key leadership traits or qualities for leaders in different library settings. Table 6 lists key selective traits for ARL (Association of Research Libraries) Directors.
|Individual or Personal Leadership Traits|
Cross-cultural management is more personal and relationship-oriented than mono-cultural management. Leaders in cross-cultural management settings are required to adopt various approaches in order to deal with multiple cultures. Leaders who are skilled only in mono-cultural management will not succeed in today’s global multi-cultural environment. Without a proper understanding of cultural norms, leaders can make fatal and embarrassing social mistakes while trying to manage their multi-cultural workforce.
Traditional leadership development does not emphasize on traits in cross-cultural management. New sets of leadership traits that focus on cross-cultural management are urgently needed to be developed in order to train new leaders with the cross-cultural management ability.
The key component of cross-cultural management qualities is the global literacy. “To be globally literate means seeing, thinking, acting, and mobilizing in culturally mindful ways” (Rosen & Digh, 2002, http://www1.sim.edu.sg/sim/pub/mag/sim_pub_mag_list.cfm?ID=961).
Globalization is an inevitable trend in all industries. The globalization tide brings great impact on libraries and librarians. This paper introduces the new concept of the Global Library and describes its key characteristics and advantages as well as disadvantages. The authors believe that the ending of local library is inevitable, as more and more libraries are joining the global cooperation and collaboration in sharing collections, services and human talents. The Global Library will emerge as an effective model for future libraries around the world.
To be a successful leader in a global library environment, Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is very critical. One needs to manage employees with diverse cultural backgrounds and serves patrons from various cultures as well. CQ is an emerging and important leadership trait in cross-cultural management. The abilities to persistently adapt to diverse cultures and different ways of thinking and the skills to take the right responses in cross-cultural interpersonal and organizational relationships are prerequisites to successful global leadership.
Leadership, as a subject, has been neglected in the library field until 1980s. As the library leaders are graying, libraries are facing an urgent need to educate and develop future library leaders. In the globalization age, library leadership development needs to add new dimensions such as CQ in cross-cultural management environment. In order to develop and train next generation of library leaders, libraries must either develop their leaders with global literary and high CQ or they need to select leaders with appropriate skills.
One of the effective ways to develop a leadership program in cross-cultural environment is to develop LDP via international collaboration. With more participants and facilitators coming from different countries and cultures, cross-cultural engagement and learning experience can be achieved effectively.
Globalization is everywhere. And the Global Library is emerging. It is time high time to seize this opportunity and take on such a challenge.
|Wang, Xuemao, & Su, Chang. (2006). Develop Future Library Leaders with Global Literacy in the Context of Cultural Intelligence. Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal, 22. URL: http://www.iclc.us/cliej/cl22WangSu.htm|